February 27, 2016

Below are the few important questions regarding the JDBC.

Q1. What are four types of JDBC driver?

Type 1 Drivers: Bridge drivers such as the jdbc-odbc bridge. They rely on an intermediary such as ODBC to transfer the SQL calls to the database and also often rely on native code. It is not a serious solution for an application

Type 2 Drivers: Use the existing database API to communicate with the database on the client. Faster than Type 1, but need native code and require additional permissions to work in an applet. Client machine requires software to run.

Type 3 Drivers: JDBC-Net pure Java driver. It translates JDBC calls to a DBMS-independent network protocol, which is then translated to a DBMS protocol by a server. Flexible, pure Java and no native code.

Type 4 Drivers: Native-protocol pure Java driver. It converts JDBC calls directly into the network protocol used by DBMSs. This allows a direct call from the client machine to the DBMS server. It doesn’t need any special native code on the client machine.
Recommended by Sun’s tutorial, driver type 1 and 2 are interim solutions where direct pure Java drivers are not yet available. Driver type 3 and 4 are the preferred way to access databases using the JDBC API, because they offer all the advantages of Java technology, including automatic installation. For more info, visit Sun JDBC page

Q2. Which type of JDBC driver is the fastest one?

JDBC Net pure Java driver(Type IV) is the fastest driver because it converts the jdbc calls into vendor specific protocol calls and it directly interacts with the database.


Q3. Are all the required JDBC drivers to establish connectivity to my database part of the JDK?

No. There aren’t any JDBC technology-enabled drivers bundled with the Java Platform releases other than the JDBC-ODBC Bridge. So, developers need to get a driver and install it before they can connect to a database.

Q4. Is the JDBC-ODBC Bridge multi-threaded?

No.

Q5. What is the fastest type of JDBC driver?

JDBC driver performance will depend on a number of issues:
(a) the quality of the driver code,
(b) the size of the driver code,
(c) the database server and its load,
(d) network topology,
(e) the number of times your request is translated to a different API.
In general, all things being equal, you can assume that the more your request and response change hands, the slower it will be. This means that Type 1 and Type 3 drivers will be slower than Type 2 drivers (the database calls are make at least three translations versus two), and Type 4 drivers are the fastest (only one translation).


Q6. What causes the “No suitable driver” error?

“No suitable driver” is an error that usually occurs during a call to the DriverManager.getConnection method. The cause can be failing to load the appropriate JDBC drivers before calling the getConnection method, or it can be specifying an invalid JDBC URL–one that isn’t recognized by your JDBC driver. Your best bet is to check the documentation for your JDBC driver or contact your JDBC driver vendor if you suspect that the URL you are specifying is not being recognized by your JDBC driver.
In addition, when you are using the JDBC-ODBC Bridge, this error can occur if one or more the the shared libraries needed by the Bridge cannot be loaded. If you think this is the cause, check your configuration to be sure that the shared libraries are accessible to the Bridge.

Q7. Why isn’t the java.sql.DriverManager class being found?

Some one may ask you questions to confuse you also 🙂 simple answer is the classpath does not contain the necessary jdk jars.

Q8. What are the common steps to execute a Query in JDBC?

Create an instance of a JDBC driver or load JDBC drivers through jdbc.drivers
Register a driver
Specify a database
Open a database connection
Submit a query
Receive results
Process results

Q9. What are the steps involved in establishing a JDBC connection?

This action involves two steps: loading the JDBC driver and making the connection.

Q10. How can you load the drivers?

Loading the driver or drivers you want to use is very simple and involves just one line of code. If, for example, you want to use the JDBC-ODBC Bridge driver, the following code will load it:

Class.forName(”sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver”);

Your driver documentation will give you the class name to use. For instance, if the class name is jdbc.DriverXYZ, you would load the driver with the following line of code:

Class.forName(”jdbc.DriverXYZ”);





Q11. What will Class.forName do while loading drivers?

It is used to create an instance of a driver and register it with the
DriverManager. When you have loaded a driver, it is available for making a connection with a DBMS.

Q12. How can you make the connection?

To establish a connection you need to have the appropriate driver connect to the DBMS.
The following line of code illustrates the general idea:

String url = “jdbc:odbc:Fred”;
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, “Fernanda”, “J8?);

Q13. How can you create JDBC statements and what are they?

A Statement object is what sends your SQL statement to the DBMS. You simply create a Statement object and then execute it, supplying the appropriate execute method with the SQL statement you want to send. For a SELECT statement, the method to use is executeQuery. For statements that create or modify tables, the method to use is executeUpdate. It takes an instance of an active connection to create a Statement object. In the following example, we use our Connection object con to create the Statement object

Statement stmt = con.createStatement();

Q 14. How can you retrieve data from the ResultSet?
JDBC returns results in a ResultSet object, so we need to declare an instance of the class ResultSet to hold our results. The following code demonstrates declaring the ResultSet object rs.

ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(”SELECT COF_NAME, PRICE FROM COFFEES”);
String s = rs.getString(”COF_NAME”);

The method getString is invoked on the ResultSet object rs, so getString() will retrieve (get) the value stored in the column COF_NAME in the current row of rs.

Q15. What are the different types of Statements?

Regular statement (use createStatement method), prepared statement (use prepareStatement method) and callable statement (use prepareCall)

Q16. How can you use PreparedStatement?

This special type of statement is derived from class Statement.If you need a
Statement object to execute many times, it will normally make sense to use a PreparedStatement object instead. The advantage to this is that in most cases, this SQL statement will be sent to the DBMS right away, where it will be compiled. As a result, the PreparedStatement object contains not just an SQL statement, but an SQL statement that has been precompiled. This means that when the PreparedStatement is executed, the DBMS can just run the PreparedStatement’s SQL statement without having to compile it first.

PreparedStatement updateSales =
con.prepareStatement("UPDATE COFFEES SET SALES = ? WHERE COF_NAME LIKE ?");

Q17. What does setAutoCommit do?

When a connection is created, it is in auto-commit mode. This means that each individual SQL statement is treated as a transaction and will be automatically committed right after it is executed. The way to allow two or more statements to be grouped into a transaction is to disable auto-commit mode:

con.setAutoCommit(false);

Once auto-commit mode is disabled, no SQL statements will be committed until you call the method commit explicitly.

con.setAutoCommit(false);
PreparedStatement updateSales =
con.prepareStatement( "UPDATE COFFEES SET SALES = 10 WHERE COF_NAME ='capacinno' ");
updateTotal.executeUpdate();
con.commit();

Q18. How do you call a stored procedure from JDBC?

The first step is to create a CallableStatement object. As with Statement an and PreparedStatement objects, this is done with an open
Connection object. A CallableStatement object contains a call to a stored procedure.

CallableStatement cs = con.prepareCall("{call SHOW_SUPPLIERS}");
ResultSet rs = cs.executeQuery();

Q19. How do I retrieve warnings?

SQLWarning objects are a subclass of SQLException that deal with database access warnings. Warnings do not stop the execution of an
application, as exceptions do; they simply alert the user that something did not happen as planned. A warning can be reported on a
Connection object, a Statement object (including PreparedStatement and CallableStatement objects), or a ResultSet object. Each of these
classes has a getWarnings method, which you must invoke in order to see the first warning reported on the calling object:

SQLWarning warning = stmt.getWarnings();
if (warning != null)
{
System.out.println("n---Warning---n");
while (warning != null)
{
System.out.println("Message: " + warning.getMessage());
System.out.println("SQLState: " + warning.getSQLState());
System.out.print("Vendor error code: ");
System.out.println(warning.getErrorCode());
System.out.println("");
warning = warning.getNextWarning();
}
}

Q20. How can you move the cursor in scrollable result sets?

One of the new features in the JDBC 2.0 API is the ability to move a result set’s cursor backward as well as forward. There are also methods that let you move the cursor to a particular row and check the position of the cursor.

Statement stmt = con.createStatement(ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE, ResultSet.CONCUR_READ_ONLY);
ResultSet srs = stmt.executeQuery(”SELECT COF_NAME, PRICE FROM COFFEES”);

The first argument is one of three constants added to the ResultSet API to indicate the type of a ResultSet object: TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY, TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE , and TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE. The second argument is one of two ResultSet constants for specifying whether a result set is read-only or updatable: CONCUR_READ_ONLY and CONCUR_UPDATABLE. The point to remember here is that if you specify a type, you must also specify whether it is read-only or updatable. Also, you must specify the type first, and because both parameters are of type int , the compiler will not complain if you switch the order. Specifying the constant TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY creates a nonscrollable result set, that is, one in which the cursor moves only forward. If you do not specify any constants for the type and updatability of a ResultSet object, you will automatically get one that is TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY and CONCUR_READ_ONLY.